It is to be observed, however, that in Bengali this ব is not pronounced; the only effect it has, is to strengthen or to double the letter with which it is combined, e. g. দ্বারা written dvárá, pronounced ddárá; ঈশ্বর written íshvar, pronounced íshshar.
ঃ is to be represented when final by h, and when medial by doubling the Roman letter next following.
and before প, ফ, ব, ভ, ম, and at the end of a word, by m.
t need not be dotted when it follows sh, e.g., kashta and kāshtha.
ক্ষ and জ্ঞ are represented by ksh and jn, and ষ্ণ by shn.
ওয় is represented by w, e. g., hawāte, dewāte, and lawáte.
Final অ is not written when not pronounced, e. g. bír; except in compound words, when it may be added, even when not pronounced when the word is used singly, e. g., bíra-samúha.
The hyphen should not be used when there is vowel sandhi, e. g., astrághát, or after particles such as ni, pra, prati, aba, &c. In other cases it should be used when it contributes to clearness. No fixed rule can be laid down on the subject.
Consonants need not be doubled after r, e.g., dharma.